Newsletter subscribe

Features, Politics, Top Stories

‘In-State’ Tuition for Illegal Immigrants at the Expense of Americans

Posted: February 16, 2017 at 12:05 pm   /   by

On Tuesday, February 07, 2017,  Ed Lee, Mayor of San Francisco,  released an announcement; a plan to provide access to free college for San Francisco residents.  It received media attention. Some people praised his decision while others were reminded that San Francisco is still a sanctuary city in defiance of President Trump’s orders. When Trump announced that city officials who chose not to comply with such orders would lose federal funding, San Francisco filed a lawsuit against the president (City and County of San Francisco v. Donald J. Trump). The city stood firm on its refusal to follow the president’s orders.  With illegal immigration being such a debated topic, the logical question that follows that decision is: will undocumented students receive free college as well? It is important to get clear answers. So, let us explore the law.

Each year, millions of students graduate from American high schools.  Among those graduates, about 65,000 are undocumented students. In 1982, the Supreme Court in Plyler v. Doe decided that all students, regardless of their immigration status, were guaranteed a K-12 education. At the time, the Court’s decision did not extend to higher education. Over the years, many states changed their policies to allow undocumented students to attend colleges and universities, and after 2001, 18 states—California, Colorado, Connecticut, Florida, Illinois, Kansas, Maryland, Minnesota, Nebraska, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Oklahoma, Oregon, Texas, Utah, Washington, and Wisconsin—passed legislation offering in-state tuition rates to undocumented students. Wisconsin revoked its law in 2011.

But what does the law say today? Do states allow undocumented immigrants to be considered for in-state college tuition rates while Americans and lawful residents have to pay out-of-state tuition? The simple answer is: Yes*. Since 2012, Democrats have managed to implement policies that provide advantages and financial benefits to undocumented students at the expense of Americans. Obviously, these policies have not served as a deterrent, on the contrary; they have fostered an environment that invites immigrants to flock to this country illegally instead of following the proper immigration route.

Many people have expressed their discontent with the fact that the government sets restrictions for out-of-state students, yet allows illegal immigrants to access opportunities that are otherwise unavailable for American citizens and lawful residents. For example,  students in the state of Washington, who were admitted to colleges in California, Colorado, and Michigan, were discouraged by the fact that they were required to pay out-of-state tuition —which made it unaffordable—  so they had to settle for other options. This is an unfair policy that perpetuates an already unmanageable situation. Those students who spoke to me, said: “I am an American citizen. I have lived here my entire life, I should be given priority.” Others, who came as international students and later became lawful residents, said:  “I came here legally. I followed the rules and I obeyed the law, but I could have come illegally and I would have a better deal right now.” “I came here on a proper Visa, but it seems as if by showing up at the border without papers, you get access to everything; cheaper college, legal representation, and other benefits, so why did I go through all this trouble then?” Proper immigration procedures are lengthy and costly, and if people can come here illegally and receive a benefit for it, why would they not? After all, these policies have become a way to reward criminal behavior.

To this day, Americans cannot come to terms with the fact that previous administrations chose to give preference to illegal immigrants while they neglected every American who attended college in a different state. I contend that if undocumented students are able to access in-state tuition rates, then every American and lawful resident should receive the same benefit. If these policies are to continue, I would invite readers to contact their representatives and demand that every student who has paid out-of-state tuition be reimbursed for it. It is only fair. Public officials should not be allowed to disregard the voices of millions of Americans who are against these policies. Our representatives are here to serve people, not to reward illegal immigrants for breaking the law.

Given that the reward of coming here illegally is greater than the risk,  one has to wonder if President Trump’s administration will be able to address this issue, but we certainly hope that he will deliver the promises he made throughout his campaign despite the resistance he encounters.

*The following appendix provides information regarding policies for undocumented students as of 2014 and how they are applied in each state:

Alabama

In-state tuition is available for undocumented students. In 2011, the Alabama State Legislature passed H.B. 56, which has a provision banning students who cannot show that they are either a lawful permanent resident or have a nonimmigrant status from enrolling in or attending Alabama’s public postsecondary education institutions.1 In-state tuition is available for DACA recipients in community colleges; University of Alabama at Huntsville, Birmingham, and Tuscaloosa; University of Montevallo; Troy University at Dothan and Troy; and Auburn University at Montgomery and Auburn.2

Alaska

In-state tuition is available for undocumented students. The Alaska House of Representatives proposed H.B. 39 in 2003, which would have required students to be residents of the state for at least one year and U.S. citizens or legal aliens to receive in-state tuition.3

Arizona  

In 2006, the state legislature passed Proposition 300, barring unauthorized immigrant students from in-state tuition benefits..In-state tuition is available for DACA recipients in the Pima Community College and the Maricopa Community Colleges.5

Arkansas

The Arkansas state senate proposed S.B. 915 in 2013, which would have allowed undocumented students to pay in-state tuition if they attended an Arkansas secondary educational institution for three years.  Undocumented students pay out-of-state tuition at the University of Central Arkansas unless they live in university housing.

California

In-state tuition is available for undocumented students. The California State Legislature passed A.B. 540 in 2001.6 In 2013 the legislature passed A.B. 131, or the California DREAM Act. The law holds that all students who are exempt from nonresident tuition and that are deemed to be in financial need shall be eligible for all financial aid.7 California prohibits law-enforcement agencies from detaining undocumented immigrants for deportation if they have been arrested for a minor crime.8

Colorado

In-state tuition is available for undocumented students. The Colorado General Assembly passed S.B. 13, or Colorado ASSET, in 2013, which allows qualifying undocumented students to pay in-state tuition.9 Six previous attempts over the past decade had failed to change the state policy.

Connecticut

In-state tuition is available for undocumented students. The Connecticut General Assembly passed H.B. 6390 in 2011, which allows undocumented students to pay in-state tuition.10 Connecticut statutes require 15 percent of tuition revenue to be used for need-based institutional aid. The Connecticut Office of Higher Education and Board of Regents currently uses the FAFSA, which requires a Social Security number. Therefore, undocumented students pay into institutional aid but cannot access need-based assistance.11

District of Columbia

The District of Columbia has not introduced legislation to provide in-state tuition or financial aid to undocumented students. The District of Columbia does not grant or prohibit in-state tuition for undocumented students at the University of the District of Columbia—currently the only public university in Washington, D.C.

Delaware

In 2014, the Delaware Senate proposed S.B. 183, which would have allowed undocumented students to pay in-state tuition if they attended a Delaware secondary educational institution for three years. The bill would also have given undocumented students access to some state scholarship programs.12 Other information Undocumented students may attend the Delaware Technical Community College and the University of Delaware with in-state tuition.

Florida

In-state tuition is available for undocumented students. In 2014, the Florida legislature passed H.B. 851, which allows undocumented students to qualify for out-of-state fee waivers if they meet all of the requirements.13 A student granted an out-of-state fee waiver is still considered a non-resident student, is not eligible for financial aid, and cannot be reported as a resident for tuition purposes.

Georgia

In-state tuition is available for undocumented students. The Georgia General Assembly passed S.B. 492 in 2008, which bars unauthorized immigrant students from in-state tuition benefits.14 The Board of Regents of the University System of Georgia adopted policy 4.1.6 in 2010 that prohibits most selective institutions—schools that admit fewer than apply—from admitting undocumented students.15 The Georgia Board of Regents states that immigrants with “lawful presence” can receive in-state tuition. Although the Department of Homeland Security confers “lawful presence” to DACA recipients, the Georgia Board of Regents does not recognize this and denies these students in-state tuition and enrollment in selective colleges and universities.16

Hawaii

In-state tuition and financial aid are available for undocumented students. In 2013, the Hawaii State Legislature passed Hawaii Statute 304A-402, giving the University of Hawaii Board of Regents power to waive or reduce tuition fees for nonresidents. The University of Hawaii system allows undocumented students to qualify for in-state tuition, financial assistance, and university program participation.17 Other information Although there is no state policy for access to in-state tuition rates and financial aid for undocumented students, the University of Hawaii system operates 10 campuses and covers all public institutions in the state.18

Idaho

In 2007, the Idaho House of Representatives proposed H.B. 6390, which would have allowed undocumented students to pay in-state tuition if they attended an Idaho secondary educational institution for four years.19

Illinois

In-state tuition is available for undocumented students. The Illinois General Assembly passed H.B. 0060 in 2003, which allows qualifying undocumented students to pay in-state tuition.20 In 2011, the General Assembly passed S.B. 2185, or The Illinois DREAM Act. The law establishes a DREAM Commission to advance the educational opportunities for immigrants and children of immigrants; creates the Illinois DREAM Fund to provide financial assistance for postsecondary education; opens college savings plans to undocumented families; and requires training for high school counselors and college admission officers in educational opportunities for immigrant youth.21

Indiana

In-state tuition is available for undocumented students. The Indiana General Assembly passed H.B. 1402 in 2011, barring unauthorized immigrant students from in-state tuition benefits. 22 In 2013, the assembly passed S.B. 207 in 2013, which allows undocumented students, who were enrolled in an Indiana college or university before July 1, 2011, to receive in-state tuition. S.B. 207 permits undocumented students who had already enrolled in school to receive in-state tuition benefits, Prior to H.B. 1402, undocumented students received in-state tuition benefits from Purdue University and Ivy Tech Community College.

Iowa

Iowa General Assembly proposed H.F. 2192 in 2012, which would have allowed undocumented students to pay in-state tuition if they attended an Iowa educational institution for five years.24

Kansas

In-state tuition is available for undocumented students. The Kansas State Legislature passed H.B. 2145 in 2004, which allows qualifying undocumented students to pay in-state tuition.25

Kentucky

The Kentucky State Legislature allows the Kentucky Council on Postsecondary Education to decide in-state tuition policies. In 2008, the council elected to let individual colleges and universities to set their own rules.26


Louisiana

Louisiana has not introduced legislation to provide in-state tuition or financial aid.

Maine

Maine has not introduced legislation to provide in-state tuition or financial aid.

Maryland

In-state tuition is available for undocumented students.The Maryland General Assembly passed S.B. 167, or the Maryland DREAM Act, in 2011, allowing qualifying undocumented students to pay in-state tuition.27 In 2012, the Maryland DREAM Act was forced into a statewide referendum, which voters approved. It is the first time a state DREAM Act was approved directly by voters. Maryland is the only state that requires undocumented students to attend community college first before they receive in-state tuition benefits at four-year public colleges and universities.

Massachusetts

In 2011, the Massachusetts legislature proposed S.B. 577 and H.B. 1078. The bills would have allowed undocumented students to pay in-state tuition if they met residency requirements.28 Work permits make individuals eligible for in-state tuition regardless of immigration status.

Michigan

Michigan has no set policy that allows undocumented students access to in-state tuition. However, the governing bodies of the University of Michigan, Western Michigan University, Eastern Michigan University, Washtenaw Community College, and Kellogg Community College have formally adopted policies to allow undocumented students access to in-state tuition and some institutional aid programs.29

Minnesota

In-state tuition is available for undocumented students. The Minnesota State Legislature passed S.F. 723 in 2013, which allows undocumented students to pay in-state tuition and receive privately funded aid through public colleges and universities.30

Missouri

In-state tuition is available for undocumented students. The Missouri Legislature passed H.B. 390 in 2009, which prohibits public colleges and universities from providing any financial aid to undocumented students. Undocumented students can enroll in St. Louis Community College using resident tuition rates. DACA beneficiaries can enroll at the University of Missouri, Kansas City, and the Metropolitan Community College system at in-state-tuition rates.31

Mississippi

In-state tuition is available for undocumented students. The Mississippi House of Representatives proposed H.B. 445 in 2012, which would have allowed undocumented students to pay in-state tuition if they attended and graduated from a Mississippi secondary educational institution and resided in the state for a continuous period of five years.32 DACA beneficiaries can enroll with in-state tuition at community colleges, but policies vary widely between each school.

Montana

In-state tuition is available for undocumented students. In 2012, the Montana Legislature passed H.B. 638, a voter-approved law that denies some state services and benefits to anyone who cannot prove their citizenship or legal status. If they cannot confirm immigration status, this law requires schools to report students to immigration authorities. The law explicitly denies admission and financial aid to undocumented students.33  After 2014, university authorities declared that it is not bound by L.R. 121 and intends to admit eligible students regardless of their immigration status.

Nebraska

In-state tuition is available for undocumented students. The Nebraska Legislature passed L.B. 239 in 2006, which allows qualifying undocumented students to pay in-state tuition.34

Nevada

The Nevada Senate proposed S.B. 415 in 2007, which would have banned undocumented students from paying in-state tuition and receiving state financial aid, including the Governor Guinn Millennium Scholarship Program.35 Undocumented students are eligible for the Governor Guinn Millennium Scholarship Program, which offers as much as $10,000 in financial aid. Community College of Southern Nevada’s enrollment application asks if students are citizens, but the school is known to not closely conduct background checks. Undocumented students may be eligible for the Western Undergraduate Exchange Program—which charges nonresident students 150 percent of the in-state tuition rate—at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. 

New Hampshire

In-state tuition is available for undocumented students. The New Hampshire General Court passed H.B. 1383 in 2012, which required students to sign an affidavit certifying their legal status in order to receive in-state tuition. This effectively bars undocumented students from qualifying for in-state tuition.36  The New Hampshire House of Representatives proposed H.B. 474 in 2014, which made qualifying undocumented students eligible for in-state tuition.37

New Jersey

In-state tuition is available for undocumented students. The New Jersey Legislature passed S.2479 in 2013, which allows certain students— including undocumented immigrants—to qualify for in-state tuition at public institutions of higher education.38

New Mexico

The New Mexico Legislature passed S.B. 582 in 2005; prohibiting denial of admission or eligibility for education benefits on account of immigration status.39

New York

In-state tuition is available for undocumented students. The New York State Assembly passed S.7784 in 2002, allowing undocumented students to pay in-state tuition at institutions in the State and City University of New York systems.40 The New York State Senate proposed S.B. 2378, or the New York DREAM Act of 2014, which would have allowed undocumented students who meet in-state tuition requirements to access state financial aid and scholarships for higher education. The law also would have opened 529 tuition savings accounts to all New York youth and established a DREAM Fund Commission to raise private funds for a college scholarship program for children of immigrants. The bill failed by two votes.41

North Carolina

In-state tuition is available for undocumented students. The North Carolina House of Representatives proposed H.B. 904, in 2013, would have banned undocumented students from paying in-state tuition.42 In 2004, the North Carolina Community College System, or NCCCS, allowed each college to set its own policies for undocumented students. NCCCS required all colleges to admit students regardless of citizenship in 2007. In 2008, NCCCS told colleges not to accept undocumented students after North Carolina Attorney General Ray Cooper warned it might be against federal law. However, NCCCS reversed its decision that same year when the Department of Homeland Security advised that admission of undocumented students was not illegal under federal law. In 2011, the NCCCS added code 1D SB CCC 400.2 “Admission to College,” which officially states that the NCCCS colleges can admit undocumented students, but they must pay out-of-state tuition.43

North Dakota

North Dakota has not introduced legislation to provide in-state tuition or financial aid to undocumented students.

Ohio

In-state tuition is available for undocumented students. Current Ohio legal code prevents public colleges and universities in the state from extending in-state tuition to undocumented students. 44 In 2013, the Ohio Board of Regents decided that DACA beneficiaries could qualify for in-state tuition if they met all other eligibility requirements.45

Oklahoma

In-state tuition is available for undocumented students. In 2003, the Oklahoma legislature passed S.B. 596 which allows undocumented students to pay in-state tuition.46 In 2008, the Oklahoma legislature passed H.B. 1804 that restricted access to in-state tuition and state financial aid.47 Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education states that undocumented students are eligible for in-state tuition if they attended an Oklahoma school for at least two years prior to graduation, graduated from an Oklahoma high school, and filed a sworn affidavit.48

Oregon

In-state tuition is available for undocumented students. In 2013, Oregon State Legislature passed H.2787 allows undocumented students to pay in-state tuition at all Oregon public colleges and universities.49 Other information Undocumented students can apply for merit-based scholarships at Oregon State University.

Pennsylvania

In 2011, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives proposed H.B. 1695, which would have allowed undocumented students to pay in-state tuition if they attended school in Pennsylvania for at least three years; graduated from a Pennsylvania high school or received a GED in Pennsylvania; provided proof of an income tax filed in Pennsylvania; filed an affidavit; and registered for college no more than four years after graduation or receiving their GED.50  S.B. 713, or the Pennsylvania DREAM Act, proposed by the Pennsylvania State Senate in 2013, would have allowed undocumented students to pay in-state tuition.

Puerto Rico

Puerto Rico has not introduced legislation to provide in-state tuition or financial aid.

Rhode Island

In-state tuition is available for undocumented students. In 2014, Rhode Island Legislation H.B. 7437, proposed by the Rhode Island House of Representatives, which would allow eligible undocumented students to pay in-state tuition.51 Community College of Rhode Island, Rhode Island College and the University of Rhode Island allow undocumented students—including DACA recipients—to pay in-state tuition.52

South Carolina

In 2008, the South Carolina Legislature passed H.B. 4400, banning undocumented students from attending or receiving financial aid in order to attend a public university.53 In 2014, the South Carolina House of Representatives proposed H.B. 4735, which would allow qualifying undocumented students to pay in-state tuition.54

South Dakota

South Dakota has not introduced legislation to provide in-state tuition or financial aid to undocumented students.

Tennessee

The Tennessee Board of Regents System considers undocumented students to be out-of-state students.55

Texas

In-state tuition is available for undocumented students. The Texas Legislature passed H.B. 1403 in 2001, which allows undocumented students to pay in-state tuition.56 In 2005, the legislature passed S.B. 1528, which allowed undocumented students to qualify for state financial aid.57 Undocumented students must file the Texas Application for State Financial Aid, or TASFA, to receive state aid. Undocumented students may qualify for the Texas Public Educational, or TPEG, Grant and the Towards Excellence, Access and Success, or TEXAS, Grant. 

Utah

In-state tuition is available for undocumented students. In 2002, the Utah State Legislature passed H.B. 144, which allows eligible undocumented students to pay in-state tuition.58 .In 2011, the Utah House of Representatives proposed H.B. 191, which would have ended in-state tuition benefits for undocumented students.59  The university of Utah lists many scholarships as available to H.B. 144, DACA, and non-FAFSA eligible students.

Vermont

Vermont has not introduced legislation to provide in-state tuition or financial aid to undocumented students. While Vermont has no policies on undocumented students, the state was interestingly 1 of only 11 states to file a joint amicus brief opposing Arizona’s strict immigration laws in Arizona v. United States. Virginia Legislation In 2014, the Virginia House of Delegates proposed H.B. 747, which would have allowed eligible undocumented students to pay in-state tuition.60 Attorney General Mark R. Herring announced that DACA recipients would be allowed to pay in-state tuition.

Washington

In-state tuition is available for undocumented students. In 2003, the Washington State Legislature passed H.B. 1079, allowing eligible undocumented students to pay in-state tuition at all Washington state public colleges and universities. In 2014, the legislature passed S.B. 6523 or the Washington DREAM Act, which extends eligibility for state financial aid to DACA students.61

West Virginia

West Virginia has not introduced legislation to provide in-state tuition or financial aid for undocumented students.

Wisconsin

In 2009, the Wisconsin State Legislature passed A.B. 75, which allowed undocumented students to pay in-state tuition if they graduated from a Wisconsin high school or received a GED in Wisconsin, attended a Wisconsin high school for three continuous years, and filed an affidavit.63  In 2011, the legislature passed A.B. 40 that withdrew the in-state tuition benefits for undocumented students.64 Proposed by the Wisconsin State Assembly in 2014, A.B. 785 would have allowed undocumented students to pay in-state tuition to qualified undocumented students at University of Wisconsin institutions and technical colleges.65

Wyoming

Wyoming has not introduced legislation to provide in-state tuition or financial aid to undocumented students. Other information Undocumented students may be eligible for the Western Undergraduate Exchange Program, which charges nonresident students 150 percent of the in-state tuition rate at the University of Wyoming.

Endnotes

1 The text of H.B. 56 may be found at “HB56,” available at http://alisondb.legislature.state.al.us/acas/ searchableinstruments/2011rs/bills/hb56.htm (last accessed October 2014).

2 United We Dream, “Tuition and State Aid Equity for Undocumented Students and DACA Grantees” (2014), available at http://unitedwedream.org/wp-content/ uploads/2012/09/DEEPTuitionEquityMapMay2014 merged.pdf.

3 The text of H.B. 39 may be found at The State of Alaska, “House Bill No. 39” (2003), available at http://www.legis. state.ak.us/PDF/23/Bills/HB0039A.PDF.

4 The text of Proposition 300 may be found at Arizona Department of State, “2006 Ballot Propositions & Judicial Performance Review,” available at http://www.azsos.gov/ election/2006/Info/PubPamphlet/english/Prop300.htm (last accessed October 2014).

5 United We Dream, “Tuition and State Aid Equity for Undocumented Students and DACA Grantees.”

6 The text of A.B. 540 may be found at Official California Legislative Information, “AB 540,” available at http:// www.leginfo.ca.gov/pub/01-02/bill/asm/ab_0501- 0550/ab_540_bill_20011013_chaptered.html (last accessed October 2014).

7 The text of A.B. 131 may be found at Official California Legislative Information, “AB 131,” available at http:// www.leginfo.ca.gov/pub/11-12/bill/asm/ab_0101- 0150/ab_131_bill_20110527_amended_asm_v95.html (last accessed October2014).

8 The text of A.B. 4 may be found at Official California Legislative Information, “Assembly Bill No. 4,” available at http://www.leginfo.ca.gov/pub/13-14/bill/asm/ ab_0001-0050/ab_4_bill_20130904_amended_sen_ v96.pdf (last accessed October 2014).

9 The text of S.B. 13 may be found at Colorado General Assembly, “Senate Bill 13-033,” available at http://www. leg.state.co.us/clics/clics2013a/csl.nsf/fsbillcont3/E083F 0BE76DFD8F087257A8E0073BFC9?Open&file=033_enr. pdf (last accessed October 2014).

10 The text of H.B. 6390 may be found at Connecticut General Assembly, “Substitute House Bill No. 6390,” available at http://cga.ct.gov/2011/ACT/PA/2011PA- 00043-R00HB-06390-PA.htm (last accessed October 2014).

11 Nicolás Medina Mora, “In Fight for Financial Aid, Connecticut DREAMers Face Dilemma,” Buzzfeed, April 17, 2014, available at http://www.buzzfeed.com/ nicolasmedinamora/in-fight-for-financial-aid-connecticut-dreamers-face-dilemma#190tq2x.

12 The text of S.B. 183 may be found at State of Delaware, “147th General Assembly,” available at http://legis. delaware.gov/LIS/LIS147.nsf/2bede841c6272c8880256 98400433a04/b1a3a6aaa2b6ebe285257ca6006b5559? OpenDocument&Highlight=0,tuition (last accessed October 2014).

13 The text of H.B. 851 may be found at The Florida Senate, “CS/CS/CS/HB 851, Engrossed 2,” available at https:// www.flsenate.gov/Session/Bill/2014/0851/BillText/e2/ PDF (last accessed October 2014).

14 The text of S.B. 492 may be found at Georgia General Assembly, “2007–2008 Regular Session – SB 492,” available at http://www.legis.ga.gov/legislation/en-US/ display/20072008/SB/492 (last accessed October 2014).

15 University System of Georgia, “Regents Adopt New Policies on Undocumented Students,” Press release, October 13, 2010, available at http://www.usg.edu/ news/release/regents_adopt_new_policies_on_undocumented_students.

16 Ibid.

17 The text of 304A-402 may be found at Hawaii State Legislature, “Residence for tuition purposes; basic rule,” available at http://www.capitol.hawaii.gov/hrscurrent/ Vol05_Ch0261-0319/HRS0304A/HRS_0304A-0402.htm (last accessed October 2014).

18 Ibid.

19 The text of H.B. 220 may be found at State of Idaho Legislature, “House Bill No. 220,” available at http:// legislature.idaho.gov/legislation/2007/H0220.html (last accessed October 2014). 20 The text of H.B. 0060 may be found at Illinois General Assembly, “Public Act 093-0007,” available at http:// www.ilga.gov/legislation/publicacts/fulltext. asp?Name=093-0007 (last accessed October 2014).

21 The text of S.B. 2185 may be found at Illinois General Assembly, “Public Act 097-0233,” available at http:// www.ilga.gov/legislation/publicacts/97/097-0233.htm (last accessed October 2014).

22 The text of H.B. 1402 may be found at Open States, “HB 1402,” available at http://openstates.org/in/bills/2011/ HB1402/ (last accessed October 2014).

23 The text of S.B. 207 may be found at Indiana General Assembly, “Senate Bill 0207,” available at http://www. in.gov/apps/lsa/session/billwatch/billinfo?year=2013&s ession=1&request=getBill&docno=207 (last accessed October 2014).

24 The text of H.F. 2192 may be found at LegiScan, “Iowa House Bill 2192,” available at http://legiscan.com/IA/ text/HF2192/id/561885 (last accessed October 2014).

25 The text of H.B. 2145 may be found at The DREAM Act Portal, “Substitute for House Bill No. 2145,” available at http://dreamact.info/sites/default/files/H.B.%202145% 20%5BK.S.A.%2076-731a%5D%20-%20Kansas%20 State%20Legislature.pdf (last accessed October 2014).

26 The text of the policy may be found at State Higher Education Policy Database, “Accelerated Learning Options,” available at http://higheredpolicies.wiche.edu/ content/policy/state/KY (last accessed October 2014).

27 The text of S.B. 167 may be found at General Assembly of Maryland, “Senate Bill 167,” available at http://mlis. state.md.us/2011rs/bills/sb/sb0167e.pdf (last accessed October 2014).

28 The text of S.B. 577 may be found at The 188th General Court of The Commonwealth of Massachusetts, https:// malegislature.gov/Bills/188/Senate/S577; the text of H.B. 1078 may be found at The 188 General Court of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, “Bill H.1078,” available at https://malegislature.gov/Bills/188/House/H1078.

29 United We Dream, “Tuition and State Aid Equity for Undocumented Students and DACA Grantees.”

30 The text of S.F. 723 may be found at Minnesota State Legislature, “SF 723,” available at https://www.revisor. mn.gov/bills/bill.php?b=Senate&f=SF0723&ssn=0 &y=2013 (last accessed October 2014).

31 The text of H.B. 390 may be found at Missouri House of Representatives, “HB 390,” available at http://house. mo.gov/content.aspx?info=/bills091/bills/HB390.htm (last accessed October 2014). 32 The text of H.B. 445 may be found at Mississippi Legislature, “House Bill No. 445,” available at http:// billstatus.ls.state.ms.us/documents/2012/pdf/HB/ 0400-0499/HB0445IN.pdf (last accessed October 2014).

33 The text of the bill may be found at LegiScan, “Montana House Bill 638,” available at http://legiscan.com/MT/bill/ HB638/2011 (last accessed October 2014).

34 The text of L.B. 239 may be found at Legislature of Nebraska, “Legislative Bill 239,” available at http:// votesmart.org/static/billtext/2804.pdf (last accessed October 2014).

35 The text of S.B. 415 may be found at Nevada Legislature, “SB415,” available at http://www.leg.state. nv.us/Session/74th2007/Reports/history. cfm?billname=SB415 (last accessed October 2014).

36 The text of H.B. 1383 may be found at LegiScan, “New Hampshire House Bill 1383,” available at http://legiscan. com/NH/text/HB1383/id/657213 (last accessed October 2014).

37 The text of H.B. 474 may be found at The New Hampshire General Court, “HB474,” available at http://gencourt. state.nh.us/bill_status/results.aspx?lsr=103&sortoption =&txtsessionyear=2014&txtbillnumber=hb474 (last accessed October 2014).

38 The text of S. 2479 may be found at New Jersey Legislature, “Senate, No. 2479,” available at http://www. njleg.state.nj.us/2012/Bills/S2500/2479_I1.HTM (last accessed October 2014).

39 The text of S.B. 582 may be found at New Mexico Legislature, “An Act Relating to Higher Education,” available at http://www.nmlegis.gov/sessions/05%20 Regular/final/SB0582.pdf (last accessed October 2014).

40 The text of S.B. 7784 may be found at New York State Assembly, “9612—A,” available at http://assembly.state. ny.us/leg/?sh=printbill&bn=A09612&term=2001 (last accessed October 2014).

41 The text of S.B. 2378 may be found at New York State Assembly, “S02378 Summary,” available at http://assembly. state.ny.us/leg/?default_fld=%0D%0At&bn=S02378&te rm=2013&Summary=Y (last accessed October 2014).

42 The text of H.B. 904 may be found at General Assembly of North Carolina, “In-State Tuition/Some N.C. Immigrant Youth,” available at http://www.ncleg.net/ Sessions/2013/ Bills/House/PDF/H904v0.pdf (last accessed October 2014).

43 The text of the policy may be found at University of North Carolina, “The UNC Policy Manual,” available at http://www.northcarolina.edu/apps/policy/index. php?pg=vs&id=s451 (last accessed October 2014).

44 The text of the code may be found at LAWriter, “3333.31 Rules for determining student residency,” available at http://codes.ohio.gov/orc/3333.31 (last accessed October 2014).

45 Ted Hart, “Regents: Immigrants Qualify for In-State Tuition,” NBC4i, October 21, 2013, available at http:// www.nbc4i.com/story/22960519/regents-immigrantsqualify-for-in-state-tuition. 46 The text of S.B. 596 may be found at Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education, “Task Force Begins Work on Helping Hispanic Students Go to College,” Press release, October 27, 2004, available at http://www. okhighered.org/news-center/hispanic-task-force.shtml.

47 The text of H.B. 1804 may be found at the Oklahoma State Legislature, “House Bill 1804,” available at http:// webserver1.lsb.state.ok.us/2007-08bills/HB/HB1804_ int.rtf (last accessed October 2014).

48 Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education, “Task Force Begins Work on Helping Hispanic Students Go to College.”

49 The text of H.B. 2787 may be found at The Oregonian, “House Bill 2787,” available at http://gov.oregonlive.com/ bill/2013/HB2787/ (last accessed October 2014).

50 The text of H.B. 1695 may be found at The General Assembly of Pennsylvania, “House Bill No. 1695,” available at http://www.legis.state.pa.us/cfdocs/legis/ PN/Public/btCheck.cfm?txtType=HTM&sessYr=2011&se ssInd=0&billBody=H&billTyp=B&billNbr=1695& pn=2140 (last accessed October 2014).

51 The text of S.B. 713 may be found at Pennsylvania General Assembly, “Bill Information,” available at http:// www.legis.state.pa.us/cfdocs/billInfo/billInfo.cfm?sYear =2013&sInd=0&body=S&type=B&bn=0713 (last accessed October 2014).

52 The text of H.B. 7437 may be found at Open States, “HB 7437,” available at http://openstates.org/ri/bills/2014/ HB7437/ (last accessed October 2014).

53 The text of H.B. 4400 may be found at South Carolina General Assembly, “A280, R327, H4400,” available at http://www.scstatehouse.gov/sess117_2007-2008/ bills/4400.htm (last accessed October 2014).

54 The text of H.B. 4735 may be found at South Carolina Legislature, “H 4735,” available at http://www. scstatehouse.gov/query.php?search=DOC&searchtext= tuition&category=LEGISLATION&session=120&conid=7 473212&result_pos=0&keyval=1204735&numrows=10 (last accessed October 2014).

55 The text of S.B. 1951 and H.B. 1992 may be found at Open States, “SB 1951,” available at http://openstates. org/tn/bills/108/SB1951/ (last accessed October 2014)

56 The text for H.B. 1403 may be found at Texas Legislature Online, “An Act,” available at http://www.legis.state.tx.us/ tlodocs/77R/billtext/html/HB01403F.htm (last accessed October 2014).

57 The text for S.B. 1528 may be found at Texas Legislature Online, “S.B. No. 1528,” available at http://www.legis. state.tx.us/tlodocs/79R/billtext/pdf/SB01528F.pdf (last accessed October 2014). 58 The text of H.B. 144 may be found at Utah State Legislature, “H.B. 144 Enrolled,” available at http://www. le.state.ut.us/~2002/bills/hbillenr/hb0144.htm (last accessed October 2014).

59 The text of H.B. 191 may be found at Utah State Legislature, “First Substitute H.B. 191,” available at http://le.utah.gov/~2011/bills/hbillamd/hb0191s01. htm (last accessed October 2014).

60 The text of the H.B. 747 may be found at Virginia General Assembly Legislative Information System, “HB 747 Tuition, in-state; student eligibility, Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals,” available at http://leg1.state. va.us/cgi-bin/legp504.exe?ses=141&typ=bil&val=HB747 (last accessed October 2014).

61 The text of H.B. 1079 may be found at Washington Votes, “2003 House Bill 1079,” available at http://www. washingtonvotes.org/2003-HB-1079 (last accessed October 2014).

62 The text of S.B. 6523 may be found at Washington State Legislature, “SB 6523 – 2013–14,” available at http:// apps.leg.wa.gov/billinfo/summary.aspx?bill=6523 (last accessed October 2014). 63 The text of A.B. 75 may be found at Wisconsin State Legislature, “2003 Assembly Bill 95,” available at https:// docs.legis.wisconsin.gov/2003/related/proposals/ab95 (last accessed October 2014).

64 The text of A.B. 40 may be found at Sierra Club: Wisconsin John Muir Chapter, “2011–13 Wisconsin State Budget,” available at http://wisconsin.sierraclub.org/ documents/LFB_Budget_Summary.pdf (last accessed October 2014). 65 The text of A.B. 785 may be found at Wisconsin State Legislature, “Assembly Bill 785,” available at https:// docs.legis.wisconsin.gov/2013/proposals/ab785 (last accessed October 2014).

Valentina Humphrey

Valentina Humphrey

Team Writer at Western Free Press
Valentina Humphrey is a criminologist, writer, and researcher, actively involved in her local community. She is also a news analyst for the Media Research Center. She has experience working in the non-profit sector and has published some of her original work through various online outlets. In her free time, she enjoys sports, coffee, and creative writing. Follow her on Twitter @val_humphrey
Valentina Humphrey

'In-State' Tuition for Illegal Immigrants at the Expense of Americans